UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 8-K
_____________________________
CURRENT REPORT
PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of Report (Date of earliest event reported): June 1, 2018
_____________________________

State or other
jurisdiction of
Exact name of registrant incorporation or Commission I.R.S. Employer
as specified in its charter       organization       File Number       Identification No.
Windstream Holdings, Inc. Delaware 001-32422 46-2847717
Windstream Services, LLC Delaware 001-36093 20-0792300
     
4001 Rodney Parham Road
Little Rock, Arkansas 72212
(Address of principal executive (Zip Code)
offices)

(501)748-7000
(Registrants’ telephone number, including area code)

N/A
(Former name or former address, if changed since last report)
_____________________________

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions:

      Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).

Emerging growth company ☐

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐


Item 1.01 Entry into a Material Definitive Agreement.

On June 1, 2018, Windstream Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement (the “Agreement”) with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the “Sales Agent”).

Under the terms of the Agreement, the Company may issue and sell, from time to time to or through the Sales Agent, shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $18,000,000 (the “Shares”). The Company intends to use the net proceeds from this offering for general corporate purposes, including, without limitation, the acquisition of companies or businesses and additional contributions to the Windstream Pension Plan.

The Sales Agent will act as the Company’s agent in connection with any offerings of the Shares under the Agreement. The sales, if any, of the Shares under the Agreement may be made in sales deemed to be “at-the-market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, including by sales made directly on or through the NASDAQ Global Select Market or another market for the Shares, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at negotiated prices, or as otherwise agreed with the Sales Agent. The Company will pay the Sales Agent compensation for sales of the Shares made through the Sales Agent, as sales agent, under the Agreement, in an amount not to exceed 3.00% of the gross sales price of such Shares.

The offering of the Shares pursuant to the Agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all shares subject to the Agreement or (2) the termination of the Agreement by the Company or the Sales Agent. The Company may terminate the Agreement for any reason, at any time, upon prior written notice to the Sales Agent, and the Sales Agent may terminate the Agreement for any reason, at any time, upon prior written notice to the Company.

The Shares will be issued pursuant to a base prospectus dated May 3, 2018 and a prospectus supplement dated June 1, 2018, filed pursuant to the Company’s shelf registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-223361) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 1, 2018.

The description of the Agreement does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Agreement filed herewith as Exhibit 1.1 and incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9.01 Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits

The following exhibits are filed with this report:

Exhibit      
No. Description
1.1 Equity Distribution Agreement, dated June 1, 2018, by and between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
5.1 Opinion of Kutak Rock LLP.
23.1 Consent of Kutak Rock LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrants have duly caused this report to be signed on their behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

WINDSTREAM HOLDINGS, INC. WINDSTREAM SERVICES, LLC
 
 
By: /s/ Kristi M. Moody By: /s/ Kristi M. Moody
Name:      Kristi M. Moody Name:      Kristi M. Moody
Title: Senior Vice President - General Counsel & Title: Senior Vice President - General Counsel &
Corporate Secretary Corporate Secretary

June 1, 2018


Exhibit 1.1

WINDSTREAM HOLDINGS, INC.

Up to $18,000,000
Shares of Common Stock
($ 0.0001 par value)
Equity Distribution Agreement

June 1, 2018

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
388 Greenwich Street
New York, New York, 10013

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Windstream Holdings, Inc., a corporation organized under the laws of Delaware (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the “Manager”) as follows:

1. Description of Shares. The Company proposes to issue and sell through or to the Manager, as sales agent and/or principal, shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value (“Common Stock”), having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $18,000,000 (the “Shares”), from time to time during the term of this Agreement and on the terms set forth in Section 3 of this Agreement. For purposes of selling the Shares through the Manager, the Company hereby appoints the Manager as exclusive agent of the Company for the purpose of soliciting purchases of the Shares from the Company pursuant to this Agreement and the Manager agrees to use its reasonable efforts to solicit purchases of the Shares on the terms and subject to the conditions stated herein. The Company agrees that whenever it determines to sell the Shares directly to the Manager as principal, it will enter into a separate agreement (each, a “Terms Agreement”) in substantially the form of Annex I hereto, relating to such sale in accordance with Section 3 of this Agreement. Certain terms used herein are defined in Section 18 hereof.

2. Representations and Warranties. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Manager at the Execution Time and on each such time the following representations and warranties are repeated or deemed to be made pursuant to this Agreement, as set forth below.

(a) The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Act and has prepared and filed with the Commission a registration statement (File Number 333-223361) on Form S-3, including a related Base Prospectus, for registration under the Act of the offering and sale of the Shares. Such Registration Statement, including any amendments thereto filed prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, has become effective. The Company has filed with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement relating to the Shares in accordance with Rule 424(b). As filed, the Prospectus contains or incorporates by reference all information required by the Act and the rules thereunder, and, except to the extent the Manager shall agree in writing to a modification, shall be in all substantive respects in the form furnished to the Manager prior to the Execution Time or prior to any such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made. The Registration Statement, at the Execution Time, each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made, and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, meets the requirements set forth in Rule 415(a)(1)(x). The initial Effective Date of the Registration Statement was not earlier than the date three years before the Execution Time. Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 which were filed under the Exchange Act on or before the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, as the case may be; and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act after the Effective Date of the Registration Statement or the issue date of the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

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(b) To the extent that the Registration Statement is not available for the sales of the Shares as contemplated by this Agreement, the Company shall file a new registration statement with respect to any additional shares of Common Stock necessary to complete such sales of the Shares and shall cause such registration statement to become effective as promptly as practicable. After the effectiveness of any such registration statement, all references to “Registration Statement” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include such new registration statement, including all documents incorporated by reference therein pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3, and all references to “Base Prospectus” included in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the final form of prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in any such registration statement at the time such registration statement became effective.

(c) On each Effective Date, at the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time, at each Settlement Date and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Registration Statement complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading; and on the date of any filing pursuant to Rule 424(b), at the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time, on each Settlement Date and at all times during which a prospectus is required by the Act to be delivered (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) in connection with any offer or sale of Shares, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) complied and will comply in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder and did not and will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided, however, that the Company makes no representations or warranties as to the information contained in or omitted from the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished in writing to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto).

(d) At the Execution Time, at each Applicable Time and at each Settlement Date, the Disclosure Package does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The preceding sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from the Disclosure Package based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein.

(e) Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus does not include any information that conflicts with the information contained in the Registration Statement, including any document incorporated therein by reference and any prospectus supplement deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for use therein.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (the “Accountants”), who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries and delivered their report with respect to the audited consolidated financial statements and schedules included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, are independent public accountants with respect to the Company within the meaning of the Act and the applicable published rules and regulations thereunder.

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(h) The financial statements of the Company, together with the related schedules and notes, included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. The supporting schedules, if any, included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The selected financial data and the summary financial information included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(i) Since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, except as otherwise stated therein, (i) there has been no material adverse change in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”), (ii) there have been no transactions entered into by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, other than those in the ordinary course of business, which are material with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, and (C) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company on any class of its capital stock, except for regular quarterly dividends on the Company’s Common Stock.

(j) The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the state of Delaware and has all requisite power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement; the Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure so to qualify or to be in good standing would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(k) Each “significant subsidiary” of the Company (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X) (each a “Designated Subsidiary” and, collectively, the “Designated Subsidiaries”), has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation, limited partnership or limited liability company in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or formation, as applicable, has corporate, limited partnership or limited liability company power and authority, as applicable, to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and is duly qualified as a foreign corporation or limited liability company to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure so to qualify or to be in good standing would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect; except as otherwise disclosed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of, or other equity interests in, each Designated Subsidiary has been duly authorized and validly issued, is fully paid and nonassessable and is owned by the Company, directly or through subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance, claim or equity; and none of the outstanding shares of capital stock of, or other equity interests in, the Designated Subsidiaries was issued in violation of any preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of such Designated Subsidiary. The other subsidiaries of the Company other than Designated Subsidiaries, considered in the aggregate as a single subsidiary, do not constitute a “significant subsidiary” as defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X.

(l) The authorized, issued and outstanding capital stock of the Company is as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. All the shares of issued and outstanding capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and nonassessable. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company was issued in violation of the preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of the Company or any other person or entity. The Company’s Common Stock has been registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act, and the Shares have been approved for listing, subject to official notice of issuance, on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or the listing of the Common Stock (including the Shares) on Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

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(m) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(n) The Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale by the Company pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company pursuant to this Agreement against payment of the consideration set forth in this Agreement, will be validly issued and fully paid and nonassessable. The issuance of the Shares is not subject to the preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of the Company or any other person or entity. The Common Stock conforms to all statements relating thereto contained in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and such statements conform to the rights set forth in the instruments defining the same.

(o) There are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered for sale pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered for sale or sold by the Company under the Act pursuant to this Agreement, other than those rights that have been waived.

(p) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of its charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents or in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any contract, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement, note, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which any of them may be bound, or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject (collectively, “Agreements and Instruments”), or any applicable law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any government, government instrumentality or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their assets, properties or operations (including the Federal Communications Acts of 1934, as amended (including the Telecommunications Act of 1996, the “Communications Act”)), except for such violations or defaults that would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect; and the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, the Shares and any other agreement or instrument entered into or issued or to be entered into or issued by the Company in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby or in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and the consummation of the transactions contemplated herein (including the issuance and sale of the Shares and the use of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) and compliance by the Company with its obligations hereunder have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and do not and will not, whether with or without the giving of notice or passage of time or both, conflict with or constitute a breach of, or default under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to, the Agreements and Instruments or under any applicable law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any government, government instrumentality or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their assets, properties or operations (including the Communications Act), except as disclosed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and except for such conflicts, breaches or defaults or liens, charges or encumbrances that, singly or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect, nor will such action result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws or similar organizational documents of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any applicable law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any government, government instrumentality or court, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their assets, properties or operations.

(q) Except as disclosed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, no labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or any of its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, which, in either case, would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

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(r) Except as disclosed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, there is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation before or brought by any court or governmental agency or body, domestic or foreign (including the Federal Communications Commission (the “FCC”)), now pending, or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries which might reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect, or which might materially and adversely affect the properties or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder. The aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any of their respective property or assets is the subject which are not described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, could not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(s) Neither the Company nor any affiliate of the Company has taken, nor will the Company or any affiliate take, directly or indirectly, any action which is designed to or which has constituted or which would be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares.

(t) The Company and its subsidiaries own or possess, or can acquire on reasonable terms, adequate patents, patent rights, licenses, inventions, copyrights, know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), trademarks, service marks, trade names or other intellectual property (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary to carry on the business now operated by them, and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice or is otherwise aware of any infringement of or conflict with asserted rights of others with respect to any Intellectual Property or of any facts or circumstances which would render any Intellectual Property invalid or inadequate to protect the interest of the Company or any of its subsidiaries therein, and which infringement or conflict (if the subject of any unfavorable decision, ruling or finding) or invalidity or inadequacy, singly or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(u) No filing with, or authorization, approval, consent, license, order, registration, qualification or decree of, any court or governmental authority or agency (including the FCC) is necessary or required for the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, in connection with the offering, issuance or sale of the Shares hereunder or the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have been already obtained and except for such authorizations, approvals, consents, licenses, orders, registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) and under applicable state securities laws in connection with the purchase and distribution of the Shares by the Manager.

(v) The Company and its subsidiaries possess such permits, licenses, approvals, consents and other authorizations (collectively, “Governmental Licenses”) issued by the appropriate federal, state, local or foreign regulatory agencies or bodies necessary to conduct the business now operated by them, except where the failure so to possess would not, reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect; the Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all such Governmental Licenses, except where the failure so to comply would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect; all of the Governmental Licenses are valid and in full force and effect, except where the invalidity of such Governmental Licenses or the failure of such Governmental Licenses to be in full force and effect would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such Governmental Licenses which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

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(w) The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all real property owned by the Company and its subsidiaries and good title to all other properties owned by them, in each case, free and clear of all mortgages, pledges, liens, security interests, claims, restrictions or encumbrances of any kind except such as (i) are described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or (ii) do not, singly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its subsidiaries; and all of the leases and subleases material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one enterprise, and under which the Company or any of its subsidiaries holds properties described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, are in full force and effect, and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any notice of any claim of any sort that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any of the leases or subleases mentioned above, or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company or any subsidiary thereof to the continued possession of the leased or subleased premises under any such lease or sublease, except for such claim which would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(x) Except as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and except such matters as would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect, (A) none of the Company or its subsidiaries is in violation of any federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent, decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata) or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, petroleum or petroleum products, asbestos containing materials or mold (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage, disposal, transport or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), (B) the Company and its subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements, (C) there are no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigation or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of the respective properties (with respect to liens, only with respect to properties owned by the Company or any of its subsidiaries) and (D) there are no events or circumstances that would reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any private party or governmental body or agency, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or Environmental Laws.

(y) The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences and (v) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language (“XBRL”) included or incorporated by reference in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus is in compliance with the Commission’s published rules, regulations and guidelines applicable thereto. The Company and its subsidiaries’ internal controls over financial reporting are effective, and the Company and its subsidiaries are not aware of any material weakness in their internal controls over financial reporting.

(z) The Company and its subsidiaries maintain “disclosure controls and procedures” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act); such disclosure controls and procedures are effective.

(aa) There is and has been no failure on the part of the Company and any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply with any applicable provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 relating to loans and Sections 302 and 906 relating to certifications.

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(bb) All United States federal income tax returns of the Company and its subsidiaries required by law to be filed have been filed and all taxes shown by such returns or otherwise assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid, except assessments against which appeals have been or will be promptly taken and as to which adequate reserves have been provided. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed all other tax returns that are required to have been filed by them pursuant to applicable foreign, state, local or other law except insofar as the failure to file such returns would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect, and has paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company and its subsidiaries, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been provided in accordance with GAAP. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company in respect of any income and corporation tax liability for any years not finally determined are adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional income tax for any years not finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacy that would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(cc) The Company and its subsidiaries carry or are entitled to the benefits of insurance, with financially sound and reputable insurers, in such amounts and covering such risks as is generally maintained by companies of established repute engaged in the same or similar business, and all such insurance is in full force and effect. The Company has no reason to believe that it or any subsidiary will not be able (i) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (ii) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to have, individually or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

(dd) Any statistical and market-related data included in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate.

(ee) The Company is not required, and upon the issuance and sale of the offered Shares as herein contemplated and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus will not be required, to register as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(ff) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that could reasonably be expected to result in a violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder or the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 or similar law of any other relevant jurisdiction; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that could result in a sanction for violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder or the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 or similar law of any other relevant jurisdiction; and prohibition of noncompliance therewith is covered by the codes of conduct or other procedures instituted and maintained by the Company and its subsidiaries.

(gg) The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and the money laundering statutes and the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.

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(hh) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries (i) is currently subject to any sanctions administered or imposed by the United States (including any administered or enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department, the U.S. Department of State, or the Bureau of Industry and Security of the U.S. Department of Commerce), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, or the United Kingdom (including sanctions administered or controlled by Her Majesty’s Treasury) (collectively, “Sanctions” and such persons, “Sanction Persons”) or (ii) will, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of this offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person in any manner that will result in a violation of any economic Sanctions by, or could result in the imposition of Sanctions against, any person (including any person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

(ii) Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any director, officer, agent, employee or affiliate of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, is a person that is, or is 50% or more owned or otherwise controlled by a person that is: (i) the subject of any Sanctions; or (ii) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is, or whose government is, the subject of Sanctions that broadly prohibit dealings with that country or territory (currently, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Crimea region of Ukraine and Syria) (collectively, “Sanctioned Countries” and each, a “Sanctioned Country”).

(jj) Except as has been disclosed to the Underwriters or is not material to the analysis under any Sanctions, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has engaged in any dealings or transactions with or for the benefit of a Sanctioned Person, or with or in a Sanctioned Country, in the preceding 3 years, nor does the Company or any of its subsidiaries have any plans to increase its dealings or transactions with Sanctioned Persons, or with or in Sanctioned Countries.

(kk) The Common Stock is an “actively-traded security” exempted from the requirements of Rule 101 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act by subsection (c)(1) of such rule.

(ll) There is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(mm) The information under the captions “Business—Regulation,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Regulatory Matters—Federal Regulation and Legislation” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Regulatory Matters—State Regulation and Legislation” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, incorporated by reference in the Disclosure Package and in the Prospectus, is an accurate and correct description in all material respects of all material regulations to which the Company and its subsidiaries were subject as of December 31, 2017, and there have been no material changes to such information since December 31, 2017, except as disclosed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(nn) (i) At the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2)) of the Shares and (ii) as of the Execution Time and on each such time this representation is repeated or deemed to be made (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)) the Company was not and is not an Ineligible Issuer (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an Ineligible Issuer.

(oo) The Company has not entered into any other sales agency agreements or other similar arrangements with any agent or any other representative in respect of at the market offerings of the Shares in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) of the Act.

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(pp) The interactive data in the XBRL included as an exhibit to the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Manager or counsel for the Manager in connection with this Agreement or any Terms Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Manager.

3. Sale and Delivery of Shares.

(a) Subject to the terms and conditions and in reliance upon the representations and warranties herein set forth, the Company agrees to issue and sell Shares from time to time through the Manager, acting as sales agent, and the Manager agrees to use its reasonable efforts to sell, as sales agent for the Company, the Shares on the following terms.

(i) The Shares are to be sold on a daily basis or otherwise as shall be agreed to by the Company and the Manager on any day that (A) is a trading day for the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”), (B) the Company has instructed the Manager by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail) to make such sales and (C) the Company has satisfied its obligations under Section 6 of this Agreement. The Company will designate the maximum amount of the Shares to be sold by the Manager daily as agreed to by the Manager (in any event not in excess of the amount available for issuance under the Prospectus and the currently effective Registration Statement) and the minimum price per Share at which such Shares may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions hereof, the Manager shall use its reasonable efforts to sell on a particular day all of the Shares designated for the sale by the Company on such day. The gross sales price of the Shares sold under this Section 3(a) shall be the market price for shares of the Company’s Common Stock sold by the Manager under this Section 3(a) on the Nasdaq at the time of sale of such Shares.

(ii) The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Manager will be successful in selling the Shares, (B) the Manager will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Manager to use its reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Shares as required under this Agreement, and (C) the Manager shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Manager and the Company.

(iii) The Company shall not authorize the issuance and sale of, and the Manager shall not be obligated to use its reasonable efforts to sell, any Share at a price lower than the minimum price therefor designated from time to time by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”), or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Manager in writing. The Company or the Manager may, upon notice to the other party hereto by telephone (confirmed promptly by electronic mail), suspend the offering of the Shares for any reason and at any time; provided, however, that such suspension or termination shall not affect or impair the parties’ respective obligations with respect to the Shares sold hereunder prior to the giving of such notice.

(iv) The Manager hereby covenants and agrees not to make any sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company, pursuant to this Section 3(a), other than (A) by means of ordinary brokers’ transactions between members of the Nasdaq that qualify for delivery of a Prospectus to the Nasdaq in accordance with Rule 153 (such transactions are hereinafter referred to as “Continuous Offerings”) and (B) such other sales of the Shares on behalf of the Company in its capacity as agent of the Company as shall be agreed by the Company and the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

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(v) The compensation to the Manager for sales of the Shares with respect to which the Manager acts as sales agent under this Agreement shall be up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the Shares sold pursuant to this Section 3(a) and payable as described in the succeeding subsection (vi) below. The foregoing rate of compensation shall not apply when the Manager acts as principal, in which case the Company may sell Shares to the Manager as principal at a price agreed upon at the relevant Applicable Time pursuant to a Terms Agreement. The remaining proceeds, after further deduction for any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales (the “Transaction Fees”), shall constitute the net proceeds to the Company for such Shares (the “Net Proceeds”).

(vi) The Manager shall provide written confirmation (which may be by electronic mail) to the Company following the close of trading on the Nasdaq each day in which the Shares are sold under this Section 3(a) setting forth the number of the Shares sold on such day, the aggregate gross sales proceeds and the Net Proceeds to the Company, and the compensation payable by the Company to the Manager with respect to such sales.

(vii) Settlement for sales of the Shares pursuant to this Section 3(a) will occur on the second business day following the date on which such sales are made (each such day, a “Settlement Date”). On each Settlement Date, the Shares sold through the Manager for settlement on such date shall be issued and delivered by the Company to the Manager against payment of the aggregate gross sales proceeds less any Transaction Fees for the sale of such Shares. Settlement for all such Shares shall be effected by free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust Company (“DTC”) in return for payments in same day funds delivered to the account designated by the Company. If the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) shall default on its obligation to deliver the Shares on any Settlement Date, the Company shall (A) indemnify and hold the Manager harmless against any loss, claim or damage arising from or as a result of such default by the Company and (B) pay the Manager any commission to which it would otherwise be entitled absent such default. If the Manager breaches this Agreement by failing to deliver the aggregate gross sales proceeds less any Transaction Fees to the Company on any Settlement Date for the Shares delivered by the Company, the Manager will pay the Company interest based on the effective overnight federal funds rate on such unpaid amount less any compensation due to the Manager.

(viii) At each Applicable Time, Settlement Date, Representation Date (as defined in Section 4(k)) and Filing Date (as defined in Section 4(x)), the Company shall be deemed to have affirmed each representation and warranty contained in this Agreement as if such representation and warranty were made as of such date, modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended as of such date. Any obligation of the Manager to use its reasonable efforts to sell the Shares on behalf of the Company shall be subject to the continuing accuracy of the representations and warranties of the Company herein, to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and to the continuing satisfaction of the additional conditions specified in Section 6 of this Agreement.

(b) If the Company wishes to issue and sell the Shares pursuant to this Agreement but other than as set forth in Section 3(a) of this Agreement (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Manager of the proposed terms of such Placement. If the Manager, acting as principal, wishes to accept such proposed terms (which it may decline to do for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussions with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Manager and the Company will enter into a Terms Agreement setting forth the terms of such Placement. The terms set forth in a Terms Agreement will not be binding on the Company or the Manager unless and until the Company and the Manager have each executed such Terms Agreement accepting all of the terms of such Terms Agreement. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Terms Agreement, the terms of such Terms Agreement will control.

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(c) Each sale of the Shares to the Manager shall be made in accordance with the terms of this Agreement and, if applicable, a Terms Agreement, which will provide for the sale of such Shares to, and the purchase thereof by, the Manager. A Terms Agreement may also specify certain provisions relating to the reoffering of such Shares by the Manager. The commitment of the Manager to purchase the Shares pursuant to any Terms Agreement shall be deemed to have been made on the basis of the representations and warranties of the Company herein contained and shall be subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth. Each Terms Agreement shall specify the number of the Shares to be purchased by the Manager pursuant thereto, the price to be paid to the Company for such Shares, any provisions relating to rights of, and default by, underwriters acting together with the Manager in the reoffering of the Shares, and the time and date (each such time and date being referred to herein as a “Time of Delivery”) and place of delivery of and payment for such Shares. Such Terms Agreement shall also specify any requirements for opinions of counsel, accountants’ letters and officers’ certificates pursuant to Section 6 of this Agreement and any other information or documents required by the Manager.

(d) Under no circumstances shall the number and aggregate amount of the Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement exceed (i) the aggregate amount set forth in Section 1, (ii) the number of shares of the Common Stock available for issuance under the currently effective Registration Statement or (iii) the number and aggregate amount of the Shares authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Board, or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Manager in writing.

(e) If either party has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Shares, it shall promptly notify the other party and sales of the Shares under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be suspended until that or other exemptive provisions have been satisfied in the judgment of each party.

(f) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement the Company shall not request the sale of any Shares that would be sold, and the Manager shall not be obligated to sell, during any period in which the Company’s insider trading policy, as it exists at the Execution Time, would prohibit purchases or sales of the Company’s Common Stock by its officers or directors, or during any other period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information.

4. Agreements. The Company agrees with the Manager that:

(a) During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Act, the Company will not file any amendment of the Registration Statement or supplement (including any Prospectus Supplement) to the Base Prospectus unless the Company has furnished to the Manager a copy for its review prior to filing and will not file any such proposed amendment or supplement to which the Manager reasonably objects. The Company has properly completed the Prospectus, in a form approved by the Manager, and filed such Prospectus, as amended at the Execution Time, with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) by the Execution Time and will cause any supplement to the Prospectus to be properly completed, in a form approved by the Manager, and will file such supplement with the Commission pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) within the time period prescribed thereby and will provide evidence satisfactory to the Manager of such timely filing. The Company will promptly advise the Manager (i) when the Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, shall have been filed (if required) with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b), (ii) when, during any period when the delivery of a prospectus (whether physically or through compliance with Rule 172 or any similar rule) is required under the Act in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares, any amendment to the Registration Statement shall have been filed or become effective, (iii) of any request by the Commission or its staff for any amendment of the Registration Statement, or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or for any supplement to the Prospectus or for any additional information, (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or of any notice objecting to its use or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for that purpose and (v) of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification of the Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the institution or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose. The Company will use its best efforts to prevent the issuance of any such stop order or the occurrence of any such suspension or objection to the use of the Registration Statement and, upon such issuance, occurrence or notice of objection, to obtain as soon as possible the withdrawal of such stop order or relief from such occurrence or objection, including, if necessary, by filing an amendment to the Registration Statement or a new registration statement and using its best efforts to have such amendment or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable.

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(b) If, at any time on or after an Applicable Time but prior to the related Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, any event occurs as a result of which the Disclosure Package would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made or the circumstances then prevailing not misleading, the Company will (i) notify promptly the Manager so that any use of the Disclosure Package may cease until it is amended or supplemented; (ii) amend or supplement the Disclosure Package to correct such statement or omission and (iii) supply any amendment or supplement to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

(c) During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Act, any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then supplemented would include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein in the light of the circumstances under which they were made at such time not misleading, or if it shall be necessary to amend the Registration Statement, file a new registration statement or supplement the Prospectus to comply with the Act or the Exchange Act or the respective rules thereunder, including in connection with use or delivery of the Prospectus, the Company promptly will (i) notify the Manager of any such event, (ii) prepare and file with the Commission, subject to the second sentence of paragraph (a) of this Section 4, an amendment or supplement or new registration statement which will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance, (iii) use its reasonable best efforts to have any amendment to the Registration Statement or new registration statement declared effective as soon as practicable in order to avoid any disruption in use of the Prospectus and (iv) supply any supplemented Prospectus to the Manager in such quantities as the Manager may reasonably request.

(d) As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its securityholders and to the Manager an earnings statement or statements of the Company and its subsidiaries which will satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Act and Rule 158.

(e) The Company will furnish to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, without charge, signed copies of the Registration Statement (including exhibits thereto) and, so long as delivery of a prospectus by the Manager or dealer may be required by the Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172), as many copies of the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and any supplement thereto as the Manager may reasonably request. The Company will pay the expenses of printing or other production of all documents relating to the offering.

(f) The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to arrange, if necessary, for the qualification of the Shares for sale under the laws of such jurisdictions as the Manager may designate and will maintain such qualifications in effect so long as reasonably required for the distribution of the Shares; provided that in no event shall the Company be obligated to qualify to do business in any jurisdiction where it is not now so qualified or to take any action that would subject it to service of process in suits, other than those arising out of the offering or sale of the Shares, in any jurisdiction where it is not now so subject.

(g) The Company agrees that, unless it has or shall have obtained the prior written consent of the Manager, and the Manager agrees with the Company that, unless it has or shall have obtained, as the case may be, the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus” (as defined in Rule 405) required to be filed by the Company with the Commission or retained by the Company under Rule 433; provided that the prior written consent of the parties hereto shall be deemed to have been given in respect of the Free Writing Prospectuses included in Schedule I hereto. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Manager or the Company is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company agrees that (i) it has treated and will treat, as the case may be, each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and (ii) it has complied and will comply, as the case may be, with the requirements of Rules 164 and 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including in respect of timely filing with the Commission, legending and record keeping.

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(h) The Company will not offer, sell, contract to sell, pledge, or otherwise dispose of, (or enter into any transaction which is designed to, or might reasonably be expected to, result in the disposition of (whether by actual disposition or effective economic disposition due to cash settlement or otherwise) by the Company or any affiliate of the Company or any person in privity with the Company or any affiliate of the Company) directly or indirectly, including the filing (or participation in the filing) of a registration statement with the Commission in respect of, or establish or increase a put equivalent position or liquidate or decrease a call equivalent position within the meaning of Section 16 of the Exchange Act, any other shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into, or exercisable, or exchangeable for, shares of Common Stock; or publicly announce an intention to effect any such transaction without (i) giving the Manager at least five Business Days’ prior written notice specifying the nature of the proposed transaction and the date of such proposed transaction and (ii) the Manager suspending acting under this Agreement for such period of time requested by the Company or as deemed appropriate by the Manager in light of the proposed transaction; provided, however, that the Company is permitted to take any of the following actions without compliance with the foregoing (A) the Company may file one or more registration statements on Form S-8, (B) the Company may issue and sell Common Stock pursuant to this Agreement or any Terms Agreement, any employee stock option plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan of the Company in effect at the Execution Time and the Company may issue Common Stock issuable upon the conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants outstanding at the Execution Time and (C) the Company may offer, issue and sell shares of Common Stock or any securities convertible into, or exercisable, or exchangeable for, Common Stock in connection with any acquisition or strategic investment (including any joint venture or partnership) as long as (x) the aggregate number of shares of Common Stock issued and issuable does not exceed 10% of the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of the date of this Agreement and (y) in connection with such issuance, the seller(s) agrees in writing to be bound by the provisions of this Section 4(h).

(i) The Company will not (i) take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that would constitute or that might reasonably be expected to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, purchase or pay any person (other than as contemplated by this Agreement or any Terms Agreement) any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Shares.

(j) The Company will, at any time during the term of this Agreement, as supplemented from time to time, advise the Manager immediately after it shall have received notice or obtain knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect any opinion, certificate, letter and other document provided to the Manager pursuant to Section 6 herein.

(k) Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder), and each time that (i) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be amended or supplemented (other than an Prospectus Supplement filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) pursuant to Section 4(x) of this Agreement or a prospectus supplement relating solely to the offering of securities other than the Shares), (ii) there is filed with the Commission any document incorporated by reference into the Prospectus, (iii) the Shares are delivered to the Manager as principal at the Time of Delivery pursuant to a Terms Agreement, or (iv) otherwise as the Manager may reasonably request (such commencement or recommencement date and each such date referred to in (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) above, a “Representation Date”), the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished to the Manager forthwith a certificate dated and delivered the date of such commencement or recommencement, effectiveness of such amendment, the date of filing with the Commission of such supplement or other document, the Time of Delivery, or promptly upon request, as the case may be, in form satisfactory to the Manager to the effect that the statements contained in the certificate referred to in Section 6(g) of this Agreement which were last furnished to the Manager are true and correct at the time of such commencement or recommencement, amendment, supplement, filing, or delivery, as the case may be, as though made at and as of such time (except that such statements shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to such time) or, in lieu of such certificate, a certificate of the same tenor as the certificate referred to in said Section 6(g), modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such certificate.

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(l) At each Representation Date, the Company shall furnish or cause to be furnished forthwith to the Manager and to counsel to the Manager a written opinion of Kutak Rock LLP, outside counsel to the Company, or other counsel satisfactory to the Manager, and the general counsel of the Company, each dated and delivered the date of commencement or recommencement, effectiveness of such amendment, the date of filing with the Commission of such supplement or other document, the Time of Delivery, or promptly upon such request, as the case may be, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the respective opinions referred to in Sections 6(b), (c), (d) and (e) of this Agreement, but modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinion.

(m) At each Representation Date, Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP, counsel to the Manager, shall deliver a written opinion, dated and delivered the date of commencement or recommencement, effectiveness of such amendment, the date of filing with the Commission of such supplement or other document, the Time of Delivery, or promptly upon such request, as the case may be, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the opinions referred to in Section 6(f) of this Agreement but modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of delivery of such opinion.

(n) Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder), and each time that (i) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be amended or supplemented to include additional amended financial information, (ii) the Shares are delivered to the Manager as principal at a Time of Delivery pursuant to a Terms Agreement, (iii) the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K, or (iv) at the Manager’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, there is filed with the Commission any document which contains financial information (other than a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K) incorporated by reference into the Prospectus, the Company shall cause the Accountants, or other independent accountants satisfactory to the Manager forthwith, to furnish the Manager a letter, dated the date of commencement or recommencement, effectiveness of such amendment, the date of filing of such supplement or other document with the Commission, or the Time of Delivery, as the case may be, in form satisfactory to the Manager, of the same tenor as the letter referred to in Section 6(e) of this Agreement but modified to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(o) Upon commencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement (and upon the recommencement of the offering of the Shares under this Agreement following the termination of a suspension of sales hereunder), and at each Representation Date, the Company will conduct a due diligence session, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, which shall include representatives of the management and the independent accountants of the Company. The Company shall cooperate timely with any reasonable due diligence request from or review conducted by the Manager or its agents from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including, without limitation, providing information and available documents and access to appropriate corporate officers and the Company’s agents during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, and timely furnishing or causing to be furnished such certificates, letters and opinions from the Company, its officers and its agents, as the Manager may reasonably request.

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(p) The Company consents to the Manager trading in the Common Stock for the Manager’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement or pursuant to a Terms Agreement.

(q) The Company will disclose in its Annual Reports on Form 10-K and Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as applicable, the number of Shares sold through the Manager under this Agreement, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter.

(r) If to the knowledge of the Company, the conditions set forth in Section 6(a), 6(i) or 6(k) shall not be true and correct on the applicable Settlement Date, the Company will offer to any person who has agreed to purchase Shares from the Company as the result of an offer to purchase solicited by the Manager the right to refuse to purchase and pay for such Shares.

(s) Each acceptance by the Company of an offer to purchase the Shares hereunder, and each execution and delivery by the Company of a Terms Agreement, shall be deemed to be an affirmation to the Manager that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such acceptance or of such Terms Agreement as though made at and as of such date, and an undertaking that such representations and warranties will be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such acceptance or as of the Time of Delivery relating to such sale, as the case may be, as though made at and as of such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(t) The Company shall ensure that there are at all times sufficient shares of Common Stock to provide for the issuance, free of any preemptive rights, out of its authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock or shares of Common Stock held in treasury, of the maximum aggregate number of Shares authorized for issuance by the Board pursuant to the terms of this Agreement. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Shares to be listed for trading on Nasdaq and to maintain such listing.

(u) During any period when the delivery of a prospectus relating to the Shares is required (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172) to be delivered under the Act, the Company will file all documents required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act within the time periods required by the Exchange Act and the regulations thereunder.

(v) The Company shall cooperate with Manager and use its reasonable efforts to permit the Shares to be eligible for clearance and settlement through the facilities of DTC.

(w) The Company will apply the Net Proceeds from the sale of the Shares in the manner set forth in the Prospectus.

(x) On or prior to the earlier of (i) the date on which the Company shall file a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K in respect of any fiscal quarter in which sales of Shares were made by the Manager pursuant to Section 3(a) of this Agreement and (ii) the date on which the Company shall be obligated to file such document referred to in clause (i) in respect of such quarter (each such date, and any date on which an amendment to any such document is filed, a “Filing Date”), the Company will file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b), which prospectus supplement will set forth, with regard to such quarter, the number of the Shares sold through the Manager as agent pursuant to Section 3(a) of this Agreement in Continuous Offerings, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to such sales of the Shares pursuant to Section 3(a) of this Agreement and deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to the Nasdaq as are required by such exchange. The Company may satisfy such disclosure requirement by including such information on an Annual Report on 10-K or in a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

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5. Payment of Expenses. The Company agrees to pay the costs and expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereby are consummated, including without limitation: (i) the preparation, printing or reproduction and filing with the Commission of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits thereto), the Prospectus and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and each amendment or supplement to any of them; (ii) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery (including postage, air freight charges and charges for counting and packaging) of such copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, and all amendments or supplements to any of them, as may, in each case, be reasonably requested for use in connection with the offering and sale of the Shares; (iii) the preparation, printing, authentication, issuance and delivery of certificates for the Shares, including any stamp or transfer taxes in connection with the original issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) the printing (or reproduction) and delivery of this Agreement, any blue sky memorandum and all other agreements or documents printed (or reproduced) and delivered in connection with the offering of the Shares; (v) the registration of the Shares under the Exchange Act and the listing of the Shares on Nasdaq; (vi) any registration or qualification of the Shares for offer and sale under the securities or blue sky laws of the several states (including filing fees and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such registration and qualification); (vii) any filings required to be made with FINRA (including filing fees and the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Manager relating to such filings); (viii) the transportation and other expenses incurred by or on behalf of Company representatives in connection with presentations to prospective purchasers of the Shares; (ix) the fees and expenses of the Company’s accountants and the fees and expenses of counsel (including local and special counsel) for the Company; (x) the reasonable documented out-of-pocket expenses of the Manager, including up to $50,000 of reasonable fees, disbursements and expenses of counsel for the Manager in connection with this Agreement and the Registration Statement and ongoing services in connection with the transactions contemplated hereunder and (xi) all other costs and expenses incident to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder.

6. Conditions to the Obligations of the Manager. The obligations of the Manager under this Agreement and any Terms Agreement shall be subject to (i) the accuracy of the representations and warranties on the part of the Company contained herein as of the Execution Time, each Representation Date, and as of each Applicable Time, Settlement Date and Time of Delivery (except to the extent such representations and warranties expressly relate to the specific earlier date (in which case such representations and warranties shall be true and correct as of such specified earlier date)), (ii) to the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and (iii) the following additional conditions:

(a) The Prospectus, and any supplement thereto, required by Rule 424 to be filed with the Commission have been filed in the manner and within the time period required by Rule 424(b) with respect to any sale of Shares; each Prospectus Supplement shall have been filed in the manner required by Rule 424(b) within the time period required by Section 4(x) of this Agreement; any other material required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Act, shall have been filed with the Commission within the applicable time periods prescribed for such filings by Rule 433; and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use shall have been issued and no proceedings for that purpose shall have been instituted or threatened.

(b) The Company shall have requested and caused Kutak Rock LLP, outside counsel for the Company, to furnish to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(l) of this Agreement, its letter, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, to the effect that the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (other than the financial statements and other financial, accounting and statistical information contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as to which such counsel need not provide negative assurance) comply as to form in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Act and the Exchange Act and the respective rules thereunder; and such counsel has no reason to believe that on the Effective Date the Registration Statement contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading or that the Prospectus as of its date and as of the date of such letter included or includes any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or omits to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading (in each case, other than the financial statements and other financial or accounting information contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as to which such counsel need not provide negative assurance); such counsel has no reason to believe that the Disclosure Package, as amended or supplemented at the Execution Time or at any applicable date related to the delivery of such letter, contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading (other than the financial statements and other financial or accounting information contained or incorporated by reference in the Disclosure Package, as to which such counsel need not provide negative assurance).

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(c) The Company shall have requested and caused Kutak Rock LLP, outside counsel for the Company, to furnish to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(l) of this Agreement, its opinion, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, to the effect that:

(i) the Registration Statement has become effective under the Act; any required filing of the Base Prospectus and the Prospectus, and any supplements thereto, pursuant to Rule 424(b) has been made in the manner and within the time period required by Rule 424(b); to the knowledge of such counsel, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use has been issued, no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or threatened;

(ii) based solely on its review of a certificate from the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, the Company is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware;

(iii) the Company has the corporate power and authority under the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) to conduct its business as described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus;

(iv) the Company has the corporate power and authority to execute and deliver the Agreement and to consummate the transactions contemplated thereby under the DGCL;

(v) this Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company;

(vi) neither the execution and delivery by the Company of this Agreement nor the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby, including the issuance and sale of the Shares: (A) conflicts with its charter or bylaws or (B) constitutes a violation of, or a default under, any of the agreements that are listed on a schedule to such opinion;

(vii) neither the execution and delivery by the Company of this Agreement nor the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated hereby, including the issuance and sale of the Shares: (A) violates any law, rule or regulation of the State of New York or the United States of America, or the DGCL; provided that no opinion shall be expressed as to federal or state securities laws other than as set forth in paragraph (i) above or (B) requires the consent, approval, licensing or authorization of, or any filing, recording or registration with, any governmental authority under any law, rule or regulation of the State of New York or the United States of America, or the DGCL, except for those consents, approvals, licenses and authorizations already obtained and those filings, recordings and registrations already made or as may be required under federal or state securities or Blue Sky laws as to which we express no opinion;

(viii) the Company is not and, solely after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Disclosure Package, will not be an “investment company” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

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(ix) the Shares conform to the description thereof contained in the Disclosure Package and the Base Prospectus under the caption “Description of Capital Stock”; and

(x) the Company’s authorized equity capitalization is as set forth in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus; the outstanding shares of Common Stock have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and nonassessable; the Shares have been duly and validly authorized, and, when issued and delivered to and paid for by the Manager pursuant to this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, will be fully paid and nonassessable; the holders of outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are not entitled to preemptive or other rights to subscribe for the Shares.

In rendering such opinion, such counsel may rely (A) as to matters involving the application of laws of any jurisdiction other than the State of Delaware or the Federal laws of the United States, to the extent they deem proper and specified in such opinion, upon the opinion of other counsel of good standing whom they believe to be reliable and who are satisfactory to counsel for the Manager and (B) as to matters of fact, to the extent they deem proper, on certificates of responsible officers of the Company and public officials. References to the Prospectus in paragraph (b) and this paragraph (c) shall also include any supplements thereto at the Settlement Date.

(d) The Company shall have requested and caused Kristi Moody, general counsel of the Company, to furnish to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(l) of this Agreement, her opinion, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, to the effect that:

(i) based solely on her review of the copies of certificates from public officials in the state of incorporation or formation of each subsidiary of the Company listed on a schedule to her opinion, each such subsidiary is a corporation or limited liability company validly existing and in good standing under the laws of the state of its incorporation or formation, as applicable, listed opposite its name on such schedule; to her knowledge, there are no legal or governmental proceedings pending to which the Company is a party or to which any of it property is subject, of a character required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement which is not adequately disclosed in the Prospectus, and there is no franchise, contract or other document of a character required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, or to be filed as an exhibit thereto, which is not described or filed as required; and

(ii) based solely on her review of the copies of certificates from public officials in each state in which the Company is required to qualify as a foreign corporation, the Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each such state.

(e) The Company shall have requested and caused Kristi Moody, general counsel of the Company, with respect to state regulatory matters, to furnish to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(l) of this Agreement, her opinion, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, to the effect that:

(i) each of the Company and its subsidiaries validly holds all Authorizations necessary or required under Applicable Laws for the Company and its subsidiaries to conduct their business as currently conducted and as proposed to be conducted, including the incumbent local exchange services, competitive local exchange services, long distance service, dial-up and DSL internet access and other communication services provided by the Company and its subsidiaries (the “Company Authorizations”) except where the absence of such Company Authorizations will not have a Material Adverse Effect on the Company; except as would not be material to the Company, the Company Authorizations are in full force and effect and I have no reason to believe that the Company Authorizations will not be renewed in the ordinary course. As used herein, (1) “Authorization” means any certificate, concession, cable and other franchise, consent, exemption, order, permit, license, authorization or other approval of and from a Governmental Authority; (2) “Applicable Law” means any of the statutes, rules, regulations, policies, orders, court or administrative agency decisions and interpretations, or other laws of a Governmental Authority, including, without limitation, communications and environmental laws and regulations; provided that “Applicable Law” shall not include any federal or state securities laws or tax laws and (3) “Governmental Authority” means all applicable state, local and other governmental authorities (including the Public Utility Commission thereof), all self-regulatory governmental organizations, all cable franchising authorities and all courts and other tribunals in the states listed on a schedule to such opinion that have jurisdiction over the Company and its subsidiaries;

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(ii) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation, suspension or modification of any Company Authorization, except as would not be material to the Company; the Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance in all respects with the terms and conditions of all Company Authorizations and with the rules and regulations of the regulatory authorities having jurisdiction with respect thereto, except where the failure to be in full force and effect or be in compliance would not result in a Material Adverse Effect; the Company Authorizations are not subject to any material conditions outside the ordinary course;

(iii) the Company and its subsidiaries have made all reports and filings, and paid all fees, required by all Governmental Authorities necessary for the Company and its subsidiaries to own, lease, license and use their properties and assets and to conduct their business in the manner described in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or as currently conducted, except for those reports, filings, and fees the failure to file or pay of which would not have a Material Adverse Effect;

(iv) no consent, approval, or authorization of, or filing with, any Governmental Authority under any Applicable Law is necessary for the execution and delivery of the Agreement and performance by the Company of its obligations thereunder and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Agreement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, except to the extent that the failure to obtain any such consent, approval or authorization, or to make any such filing, would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; the execution and delivery of the Agreement and the performance by the Company of its obligations thereunder, and the consummation of the transactions contemplated by the Agreement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus do not violate any Applicable Law, except for any violation that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect;

(v) there is no unsatisfied adverse order, decree or ruling under any Applicable Law outstanding against the Company or any of its subsidiaries, except for any such order, decree or ruling that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; there is no proceeding (including any rulemaking proceeding), complaint, petition or investigation pending or, to the best of her knowledge, threatened, against the Company or any of its subsidiaries, before any Governmental Authority under any Applicable Law (other than proceedings affecting the telecommunications industry generally, to which none of the Company and its subsidiaries is a specific party), except for any such proceeding, complaint, petition or investigation that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any complaint, petition, investigation or other proceeding against other licensees or applicants under any Applicable Law, except for any such complaint, petition, investigation or other proceeding that would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect;

(vi) based upon an investigation, to my knowledge, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of, or in default under, any Applicable Law, the effect of which, singly or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and

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(vii) the information under the captions “Business—Regulation,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Regulatory Matters—Federal Regulation and Legislation” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Regulatory Matters—State Regulation and Legislation” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, each incorporated by reference in the Disclosure Package and in the Prospectus is an accurate and correct description in all material respects of all material regulations to which the Company and its subsidiaries were subject as of December 31, 2017, and there have been no material changes to such information since December 31, 2017, except as disclosed in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(f) The Manager shall have received from Cravath, Swaine & Moore LLP, counsel for the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(m) of this Agreement, such opinion or opinions, dated as of such date and addressed to the Manager, with respect to the issuance and sale of the Shares, the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package, the Prospectus (together with any supplement thereto) and other related matters as the Manager may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for the purpose of enabling them to pass upon such matters.

(g) The Company shall have furnished or caused to be furnished to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(k) of this Agreement, a certificate of the Company, signed by the President or a Vice President of the Company and the chief financial or chief accounting officer of the Company, dated as of such date, to the effect that the signers of such certificate have carefully examined the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus and any supplements or amendments thereto and this Agreement and that:

(i) the representations and warranties of the Company in this Agreement are true and correct on and as of such date with the same effect as if made on such date (except to the extent such representations and warranties expressly relate to the specific earlier date (in which case such representations and warranties shall be true and correct as of such specified earlier date)) and the Company has complied with all the agreements and satisfied all the conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied at or prior to such date;

(ii) no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any notice objecting to its use has been issued and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened; and

(iii) since the date of the most recent financial statements included in the Disclosure Package, there has been no material adverse change in the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus.

(h) The Company shall have requested and caused the Accountants to have furnished to the Manager, on every date specified in Section 4(n) hereof and to the extent requested by the Manager in connection with any offering of the Shares, letters (which may refer to letters previously delivered to the Manager), dated as of such date, in form and substance satisfactory to the Manager, containing statements and information of the type ordinarily included in Accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters with respect to the financial statements and certain financial information contained in the Registration Statement, Disclosure Package and the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto.

(i) Since the respective dates as of which information is disclosed in the Registration Statement, the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus, except as otherwise stated therein, there shall not have been (A) any change or decrease specified in the letter or letters referred to in paragraph (h) of this Section 6 or (B) any change, or any development involving a prospective change, in or affecting the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, business or properties of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business, except as set forth in or contemplated in the Disclosure Package (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto) the effect of which, in any case referred to in clause (A) or (B) above, is, in the sole judgment of the Manager, so material and adverse as to make it impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Registration Statement (exclusive of any amendment thereof), the Disclosure Package and the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

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(j) [Reserved]

(k) Between the Execution Time and the time of any sale of Shares through the Manager, there shall not have been any decrease in the rating of any of the Company’s debt securities by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined in Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act) or any notice given of any intended or potential decrease in any such rating or of a possible change in any such rating that does not indicate the direction of the possible change.

(l) FINRA shall not have raised any objection with respect to the fairness and reasonableness of the terms and arrangements under this Agreement.

(m) The Shares shall have been listed and admitted and authorized for trading on Nasdaq, and satisfactory evidence of such actions shall have been provided to the Manager.

(n) Prior to each Settlement Date and Time of Delivery, as applicable, the Company shall have furnished to the Manager such further information, certificates and documents as the Manager may reasonably request.

If any of the conditions specified in this Section 6 shall not have been fulfilled when and as provided in this Agreement, or if any of the opinions and certificates mentioned above or elsewhere in this Agreement shall not be reasonably satisfactory in form and substance to the Manager and counsel for the Manager, this Agreement and all obligations of the Manager hereunder may be canceled at, or at any time prior to, any Settlement Date or Time of Delivery, as applicable, by the Manager. Notice of such cancellation shall be given to the Company in writing or by telephone confirmed in writing.

The documents required to be delivered by this Section 6 shall be delivered at the office of Cravath, Swaine & Moore, LLP, counsel for the Manager, at Worldwide Plaza, 825 Eighth Avenue, New York, NY 10019, on each such date as provided in this Agreement.

7. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Manager, the directors, officers, employees, affiliates and agents of the Manager and each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act against any and all losses, claims, damages or liabilities, joint or several, to which they or any of them may become subject under the Act, the Exchange Act or other Federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, damages or liabilities (or actions in respect thereof) arise out of or are based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the registration statement for the registration of the Shares as originally filed or in any amendment thereof, or in the Base Prospectus, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or in any amendment thereof or supplement thereto or arise out of or are based upon the omission or alleged omission to state therein a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading, and agrees to reimburse each such indemnified party, as incurred, for any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by them in connection with investigating or defending any such loss, claim, damage, liability or action; provided, however, that the Company will not be liable in any such case to the extent that any such loss, claim, damage or liability arises out of or is based upon any such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made therein in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion therein. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company may otherwise have. The Company acknowledges that the name and contact information of the Manager in the Prospectus constitute the only information furnished in writing by or on behalf of the Manager for inclusion in the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

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(b) The Manager agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signs the Registration Statement, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act, to the same extent as the foregoing indemnity from the Company to the Manager, but only with reference to written information relating to the Manager furnished to the Company by the Manager specifically for inclusion in the documents referred to in the foregoing indemnity. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability which the Manager may otherwise have.

(c) Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 7 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against the indemnifying party under this Section 7, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof; but the failure so to notify the indemnifying party (i) will not relieve it from liability under paragraph (a) or (b) above unless and to the extent it did not otherwise learn of such action and such failure results in the forfeiture by the indemnifying party of substantial rights and defenses and (ii) will not, in any event, relieve the indemnifying party from any obligations to any indemnified party other than the indemnification obligation provided in paragraph (a) or (b) above. The indemnifying party shall be entitled to appoint counsel of the indemnifying party’s choice at the indemnifying party’s expense to represent the indemnified party in any action for which indemnification is sought (in which case the indemnifying party shall not thereafter be responsible for the fees and expenses of any separate counsel retained by the indemnified party or parties except as set forth below); provided, however, that such counsel shall be reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party. Notwithstanding the indemnifying party’s election to appoint counsel to represent the indemnified party in an action, the indemnified party shall have the right to employ separate counsel (including local counsel), and the indemnifying party shall bear the reasonable fees, costs and expenses of such separate counsel if (i) the use of counsel chosen by the indemnifying party to represent the indemnified party would present such counsel with a conflict of interest, (ii) the actual or potential defendants in, or targets of, any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, (iii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of the institution of such action or (iv) the indemnifying party shall authorize the indemnified party to employ separate counsel at the expense of the indemnifying party. An indemnifying party will not, without the prior written consent of the indemnified parties, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment with respect to any pending or threatened claim, action, suit or proceeding in respect of which indemnification or contribution may be sought hereunder (whether or not the indemnified parties are actual or potential parties to such claim or action) unless such settlement, compromise or consent: (i) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising out of such claim, action, suit or proceeding and (ii) does not include an admission of fault.

(d) In the event that the indemnity provided in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of this Section 7 is unavailable to or insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party for any reason, the Company and the Manager agree to contribute to the aggregate losses, claims, damages and liabilities (including legal or other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with investigating or defending the same) (collectively “Losses”) to which the Company and the Manager may be subject in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and by the Manager on the other from the offering of the Shares. If the allocation provided by the immediately preceding sentence is unavailable for any reason, the Company and the Manager severally shall contribute in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only such relative benefits but also the relative fault of the Company on the one hand and of the Manager on the other in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such Losses as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. Benefits received by the Company shall be deemed to be equal to the total net proceeds from the offering (before deducting expenses) received by it, and benefits received by the Manager shall be deemed to be equal to the total underwriting discounts and commissions, in each case as determined by this Agreement or any applicable Terms Agreement. Relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any untrue or any alleged untrue statement of a material fact or the omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information provided by the Company on the one hand or the Manager on the other, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such untrue statement or omission. The Company and the Manager agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution were determined by pro rata allocation or any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to above. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph (d), in no event shall the Manager be required to contribute any amount in excess of the amount by which the underwriting discount or commission, as the case may be, applicable to the Shares purchased by the Manager hereunder exceeds the amount of any damages that the Manager has otherwise been required to pay by reason of such untrue or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 7, each person who controls the Manager within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act and each director, officer, employee, affiliate and agent of the Manager shall have the same rights to contribution as the Manager, and each person who controls the Company within the meaning of either the Act or the Exchange Act, each officer of the Company who shall have signed the Registration Statement and each director of the Company shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the applicable terms and conditions of this paragraph (d).

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8. Termination.

(a) The Company shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that (i) if Shares have been sold through the Manager for the Company, then Section 4(s) shall remain in full force and effect, (ii) with respect to any pending sale, through the Manager for the Company, the obligations of the Company, including in respect of compensation of the Manager, shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding the termination and (iii) the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(b) The Manager shall have the right, by giving written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate the provisions of this Agreement relating to the solicitation of offers to purchase the Shares in its sole discretion at any time. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Sections 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14 of this Agreement shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 8(a) or (b) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Sections 2, 5, 7 and 9 shall remain in full force and effect.

(d) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Manager or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date or Time of Delivery for any sale of the Shares, such sale shall settle in accordance with the provisions of Section 3(a)(vii) of this Agreement.

(e) In the case of any purchase of Shares by the Manager pursuant to a Terms Agreement, the obligations of the Manager pursuant to such Terms Agreement shall be subject to termination, in the absolute discretion of the Manager, by notice given to the Company prior to the Time of Delivery relating to such Shares, if at any time prior to such delivery and payment (i) trading in the Company’s Common Stock shall have been suspended by the Commission or Nasdaq or trading in securities generally on the NYSE or Nasdaq shall have been suspended or limited or minimum prices shall have been established on either of such exchanges, (ii) a banking moratorium shall have been declared either by Federal or New York State authorities or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of hostilities, declaration by the United States of a national emergency or war, or other calamity or crisis the effect of which on financial markets is such as to make it, in the sole judgment of the Manager, impractical or inadvisable to proceed with the offering or delivery of the Shares as contemplated by the Prospectus (exclusive of any amendment or supplement thereto).

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9. Representations and Indemnities to Survive. The respective agreements, representations, warranties, indemnities and other statements of the Company or its officers and of the Manager set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by the Manager or the Company or any of the officers, directors, employees, affiliates, agents or controlling persons referred to in Section 7 hereof, and will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares.

10. Notices. All communications hereunder will be in writing and effective only on receipt, and, if sent to the Manager, will be mailed, delivered or telefaxed to the Citigroup Global Markets Inc. General Counsel (fax no.: (212) 816-7912) and confirmed to the General Counsel, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., at 388 Greenwich Street, New York, New York, 10013, Attention: General Counsel; or, if sent to the Company, will be mailed or delivered to the Windstream Holdings, Inc. General Counsel and confirmed to it at Windstream Holdings, Inc., 4001 Rodney Parham Road, Little Rock, Arkansas 72212, attention of the General Counsel.

11. Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto and their respective successors and the officers, directors, employees, agents and controlling persons referred to in Section 8 hereof, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder.

12. No Fiduciary Duty. The Company hereby acknowledges that (a) the purchase and sale of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement is an arm’s-length commercial transaction between the Company, on the one hand, and the Manager and any affiliate through which it may be acting, on the other, (b) the Manager is acting solely as sales agent and/or principal in connection with the purchase and sale of the Company’s securities and not as a fiduciary of the Company and (c) the Company’s engagement of the Manager in connection with the offering and the process leading up to the offering is as independent contractors and not in any other capacity. Furthermore, the Company agrees that it is solely responsible for making its own judgments in connection with the offering (irrespective of whether the Manager has advised or is currently advising the Company on related or other matters). The Company agrees that it will not claim that the Manager has rendered advisory services of any nature or respect, or owe an agency, fiduciary or similar duty to the Company, in connection with such transaction or the process leading thereto.

13. Integration. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement supersede all prior agreements and understandings (whether written or oral) between the Company and the Manager with respect to the subject matter hereof.

14. Applicable Law. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York applicable to contracts made and to be performed within the State of New York.

15. Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company hereby irrevocably waives, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to this Agreement, any Terms Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby or thereby.

16. Counterparts. This Agreement and any Terms Agreement may be signed in one or more counterparts, each of which shall constitute an original and all of which together shall constitute one and the same agreement.

17. Headings. The section headings used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

24


18. Definitions. The terms that follow, when used in this Agreement and any Terms Agreement, shall have the meanings indicated.

Act” shall mean the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

Applicable Time” shall mean, with respect to any Shares, the time of sale of such Shares pursuant to this Agreement or any relevant Terms Agreement.

Base Prospectus” shall mean the base prospectus referred to in Section 2(a) above contained in the Registration Statement at the Execution Time.

Business Day” shall mean any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or a legal holiday or a day on which banking institutions or trust companies are authorized or obligated by law to close in New York City.

Commission” shall mean the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Disclosure Package” shall mean (i) the Base Prospectus, (ii) the most recently filed Prospectus Supplement, (iii) the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, identified in Schedule I hereto, (iv) the public offering price of Shares sold at the relevant Applicable Time and (v) any other Free Writing Prospectus that the parties hereto shall hereafter expressly agree in writing to treat as part of the Disclosure Package.

Effective Date” shall mean each date and time that the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment or amendments thereto became or becomes effective.

Exchange Act” shall mean the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder.

Execution Time” shall mean the date and time that this Agreement is executed and delivered by the parties hereto.

Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean a free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 405.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” shall mean an issuer free writing prospectus, as defined in Rule 433.

Prospectus” shall mean the Base Prospectus, as supplemented by the most recently filed Prospectus Supplement (if any).

Prospectus Supplement” shall mean the most recent prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that was first filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) at or on or about the Execution Time.

Registration Statement” shall mean the registration statement referred to in Section 2(a) above, including exhibits and financial statements and any prospectus supplement relating to the Shares that is filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) and deemed part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B, as amended on each Effective Date and, in the event any post-effective amendment thereto becomes effective, shall also mean such registration statement as so amended.

Rule 158”, “Rule 164”, “Rule 172”, “Rule 405”, “Rule 415”, “Rule 424”, “Rule 430B” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Act.

25


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, please sign and return to us the enclosed duplicate hereof, whereupon this letter and your acceptance shall represent a binding agreement among the Company and the Manager.

Very truly yours,

Windstream Holdings, Inc.

By:  /s/ Drew Smith
  Name: Drew Smith
  Title: Senior Vice-President - Financial Planning
  and Assistant Treasurer

The foregoing Agreement is
hereby confirmed and accepted
as of the date first written above.

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

By: Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

By:  /s/ Jesse Davis
  Name: Jesse Davis
  Title: Managing Director


SCHEDULE I

Schedule of Free Writing Prospectuses included in the Disclosure Package

None



[Form of Terms Agreement] ANNEX I

WINDSTREAM HOLDINGS, INC.

Common Stock

TERMS AGREEMENT

______, 20__

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.
388 Greenwich Street
New York, New York, 10013

Dear Sirs:

Windstream Holdings, Inc. (the “Company”) proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement, dated June 1, 2018 (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”), between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc., to issue and sell to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. the securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Purchased Shares”) [, and solely for the purpose of covering over-allotments, to grant to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. the option to purchase the additional securities specified in the Schedule I hereto (the “Additional Shares”)]. [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option]

[Citigroup Global Markets Inc. shall have the right to purchase from the Company all or a portion of the Additional Shares as may be necessary to cover over-allotments made in connection with the offering of the Purchased Shares, at the same purchase price per share to be paid by Citigroup Global Markets Inc. to the Company for the Purchased Shares. This option may be exercised by Citigroup Global Markets Inc. at any time (but not more than once) on or before the thirtieth day following the date hereof, by written notice to the Company. Such notice shall set forth the aggregate number of shares of Additional Shares as to which the option is being exercised, and the date and time when the Additional Shares are to be delivered (such date and time being herein referred to as the “Option Closing Date”); provided, however, that the Option Closing Date shall not be earlier than the Time of Delivery (as set forth in the Schedule I hereto) nor earlier than the second business day after the date on which the option shall have been exercised nor later than the fifth business day after the date on which the option shall have been exercised. Payment of the purchase price for the Additional Shares shall be made at the Option Closing Date in the same manner and at the same office as the payment for the Purchased Shares.] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option]

Each of the provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement not specifically related to the solicitation by Citigroup Global Markets Inc., as agent of the Company, of offers to purchase securities is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, and shall be deemed to be part of this Terms Agreement to the same extent as if such provisions had been set forth in full herein. Each of the representations and warranties set forth therein shall be deemed to have been made at and as of the date of this Terms Agreement [and] [,] the Time of Delivery [and any Option Closing Date] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option], except that each representation and warranty in Section 2 of the Equity Distribution Agreement which makes reference to the Prospectus (as therein defined) shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty as of the date of the Equity Distribution Agreement in relation to the Prospectus, and also a representation and warranty as of the date of this Terms Agreement [and] [,] the Time of Delivery [and any Option Closing Date] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option] in relation to the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to relate to the Purchased Shares.

An amendment to the Registration Statement (as defined in the Equity Distribution Agreement), or a supplement to the Prospectus, as the case may be, relating to the Purchased Shares [and the Additional Shares] [Include only if Citigroup Global Markets Inc. has an over-allotment option], in the form heretofore delivered to the Manager is now proposed to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.


Subject to the terms and conditions set forth herein and in the Equity Distribution Agreement which are incorporated herein by reference, the Company agrees to issue and sell to Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and the latter agrees to purchase from the Company the number of shares of the Purchased Shares at the time and place and at the purchase price set forth in the Schedule I hereto.

If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding, please sign and return to us a counterpart hereof, whereupon this Terms Agreement, including those provisions of the Equity Distribution Agreement incorporated herein by reference, shall constitute a binding agreement between the Manager and the Company.

Windstream Holdings, Inc.
   
By:                                        
Name:
Title:

ACCEPTED as of the date
first written above.

Citigroup Global Markets Inc.

By:     
Name:
Title:


Title of Purchased Shares [and Additional Shares]:
Common Stock, par value $[__] per share

Number of Shares of Purchased Shares:

[Number of Shares of Additional Shares:]

[Price to Public:]

Purchase Price by Citigroup Global Markets Inc.:

Method of and Specified Funds for Payment of Purchase Price:
By wire transfer to a bank account specified by the Company in same day funds.

Method of Delivery:
Free delivery of the Shares to the Manager’s account at The Depository Trust Company in return for payment of the purchase price.

Time of Delivery:

Closing Location:

Documents to be Delivered:

The following documents referred to in the Equity Distribution Agreement shall be delivered as a condition to the closing at the Time of Delivery [and on any Option Closing Date]:

(1) The opinion referred to in Section 4(l).

(2) The opinion referred to in Section 4(m).

(3) The accountants’ letter referred to in Section 4(n).

(4) The officers’ certificate referred to in Section 4(k).

(5) Such other documents as the Manager shall reasonably request.


Exhibit 5.1

June 1, 2018

Windstream Holdings, Inc.
4001 Rodney Parham Road
Little Rock, Arkansas 72212-2442

Re:        Proposed Sale of Up to $18,000,000 of Shares of Common Stock under Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have served as counsel to Windstream Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the issuance and sale by the Company from time to time of shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $18,000,000 (the “Shares”). The offering and sale of the Shares are covered by the registration statement on Form S-3 (together with all amendments thereto, the “Registration Statement”) filed on March 1, 2018 by the Company with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The Shares are to be sold by the Company pursuant to the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, dated June 1, 2018, by and between the Company and Citigroup Global Markets Inc. (the “Equity Distribution Agreement”) and in the manner described in the Registration Statement, the base prospectus dated May 3, 2018 and the prospectus supplement (together with the base prospectus, the “Prospectus”) filed on June 1, 2018 by the Company with the Commission. The sales of the Shares under the Equity Distribution Agreement may be made in sales deemed to be “at-the-market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including by sales made directly on or through the NASDAQ Global Select Market or another market for the Shares, sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange or otherwise, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at negotiated prices, or as otherwise agreed with the sales agent.

As counsel for the Company, we have examined the Equity Distribution Agreement, the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended to the date hereof, and currently in effect (the “Certificate of Incorporation”) and the Company’s bylaws, as well as originals or copies, certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of such other documents, corporate records, certificates of public officials and other instruments as we have deemed necessary for the purposes of rendering this opinion and we are familiar with the proceedings taken and proposed to be taken by the Company in connection with the authorization, issuance and sale of the Shares. In our examination, we have assumed the genuineness of all signatures, the legal capacity and competency of all natural persons, the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals and the conformity with the originals of all documents submitted to us as copies. We have further assumed that, upon the issuance of any of the Shares, the total number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding will not exceed the total number of shares of Common Stock that the Company is then authorized to issue under the Certificate of Incorporation. This opinion letter is given, and all statements herein are made, in the context of the foregoing.

Based upon the foregoing, and subject to the additional qualifications set forth below, it is our opinion that, upon issuance, delivery and payment therefor in the manner contemplated by the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, the Equity Distribution Agreement and the resolutions of the Board of Directors, the Shares will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

This opinion letter is based as to matters of law solely on the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as currently in effect. We express no opinion herein as to any other laws, statutes, ordinances, rules, or regulations. As used herein, the term “General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as currently in effect” includes the statutory provisions contained therein, all applicable provisions of the Delaware Constitution and reported judicial decisions interpreting these laws.

The opinion expressed herein is limited to the matters specifically set forth herein and no other opinion shall be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated. We assume no obligation to supplement this opinion if any applicable law changes after the date hereof or if we become aware of any fact that might change the opinion expressed herein after the date hereof.

This opinion is being furnished to you for submission to the Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement relating to the offer and sale of the Shares, and may not be relied upon for any other purpose without our express written consent. We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of the name of our firm therein. In giving this consent, we do not admit that we are within the category of persons whose consent is required by Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission.

Very truly yours,

/s/ KUTAK ROCK LLP